Tagged: Behavior

Data to Know

What should you know about your stock, public companies? 

Well, what do you know about your business that you can rattle off to some inquiring investor while checking the soccer schedule for your twelve-year-old, replying to an email from the CFO, and listening to an earnings call from a competitor?

Simultaneously.

That’s because you know it cold, investor-relations professionals.  What should you know cold about your stock?

While you think about that, let me set the stage. Is it retail money? The Wall Street Journal’s Caitlin McCabe wrote (subscription required) that $28 billion poured to stocks from retail traders in June, sourcing that measure from an outfit called VandaTrack.

If size matters, Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) data from the Investment Company Institute through May is averaging $547 billion monthly, 20 times June retail flows. Alas, no article about that.

You all who tuned to our Meme Stocks presentation last week (send me a note and I’ll share it) know retail money unwittingly depends on two market rules to work.

Illustration 91904354 / Stock Market © Ojogabonitoo | Dreamstime.com

This is good stuff to know but not what I mean. Can you answer these questions?

  • How many times per day does your stock trade?
  • How many shares at a time?
  • How much money per trade?
  • What’s the dollar-volume (trading volume translated into money)?
  • How much of that volume comes from borrowed stock every day?
  • What kind of money is responsible?
  • What’s the supply/demand trend?
  • What are stock pickers paying to buy shares and are they influencing your price?

Now, why should you know those things?  Better, why shouldn’t you know if you can? You might know the story cold. But without these data, you don’t know the basics about the market that determines shareholder value.

Maybe we don’t want to know, Tim.

You don’t want to know how your stock trades?

No, I don’t want to know that what I’m doing doesn’t matter.

What are we, Italians in the age of Galileo? What difference does it make what sets price?  The point is we ought to know. Otherwise, we’ve got no proof that the market serves our best interests.

We spend billions of dollars complying with disclosure rules. Aren’t we owed some proof those dollars matter?

Yes.  We are.  But it starts with us.  The evidence of the absence of fundamentals in the behavior of stocks is everywhere.  Not only are Blackrock, Vanguard and State Street the largest voting block for public companies and principally passive investors, but the majority of trading volume is executed by intermediaries who are not investors at all.

Stocks with no reason to go up, do.  And stock with no reason to go down, do.  Broad measures are not behaving like the stocks comprising them.  Over the whole market last week, just two sectors had more than a single net buying day:  Utilities and Energy. Yet both were down (0.9%, 1.3% respectively). Somehow the S&P 500 rose 1.7%.

You’d think public companies would want to know why the stock market has become a useless barometer.

Let me give you two examples for the questions I asked.  Public companies, you should be tracking these data at least weekly to understand changing supply/demand conditions for your shares.  And what kind of money is driving shareholder-value.

I won’t tell you which companies they are, but I’ll tweet the answer tomorrow by noon ET (follow @_TimQuast).  These are all 5-day averages by the way:

Stock A: 

  • Trades/day:  55,700
  • Shares/trade: 319
  • $/Trade: $4,370
  • Dollar volume:  $243 million
  • Short volume percent: 51%
  • Behaviors:  Active 9% of volume; Passive, 36%; Fast Trading, 32%; Risk Mgmt, 23% (Active=stock pickers; Passive=indexes, ETFs, quants; Fast Trading=speculators, intermediaries; Risk Mgmt=trades tied to derivatives)
  • Trend: Overbought, signal predicts a decline a week out
  • Active money is paying:  $11.60, last in May 2021, Engagement is 94%

Stock B:

  • Trades/day:  67,400
  • Shares/trade: 89
  • $/Trade: $11,000
  • Dollar volume:  $743 million
  • Short volume: 47%
  • Behaviors:  Active, 8% of volume; Passive, 24%; Fast Trading 49%; Risk Mgmt, 19%
  • Trend: Overbought, signal predicts declines a week out
  • Active money is paying:  $121, last in June 2021, Engagement is 81%

The two stocks have gone opposite directions in 2021.  The problem isn’t story for either one. Both have engaged investors. Active money is 8-9%.

The difference is Passive money. Leverage with derivatives.

Would that be helpful to boards and executive teams?  Send this Market Structure Map to them.  Ask if they’d like to know how the stock trades.

Everybody else in the stock market – traders, investors, risk managers, exchanges, brokers – is using quantitative data.  Will we catch up or stay stuck in the 1990s?

We can help.

March 17: The machination of machines!

Couldn’t blame you if you missed it.

 

For many, these past few weeks and the ones coming up are the busiest on the IR calendar. Board presentations, ASMs, virtual analyst conferences and investor days. You just finish year-end events and Q1 reporting is rushing at you.

 

Maybe you missed last week’s Market Structure Map. Tim Quast did an excellent job sharing our most-up-to-date view on how the Market works. If you missed it you can find it at: modernir.com/msm – it’s worth revisiting and sharing with your entire IR team, including the senior-most members of your investor and media facing IR team.

 

If you are a regular reader, you may have already considered putting constraints on no-longer preeminent sell-siders (data show their primary audience – yes, including still important long-term institutional holders – Active Investment in our parlance – consistently reflects less than 9.5 percent of all trading Market wide.

 

…with all respect and due appreciation to Python (Monty) Pictures.

No today, even after the recent storied, but largely isolated uptick in retail day trader influence – its machines, acting far faster with mathematical indifference driving the pricing for nearly, if not all equities. These Fast Traders – collocated to exchange computers running increasingly tactical algorithms (53 percent of all trading in the S&P500® last week) are no longer simple amplifiers of nuanced investor behavior, they search the web for data and reference points, trading both agnostically to whether it moves your equity price up or down and increasingly with intent to seemingly do just that.

 

Similar algorithmic behaviors now amplify the trading of the contextually correct, but perhaps inferentially misleading Passive Investment segment (last week: 20 percent of all Market trading). Regular readers know our growing focus on ETF-related trading that has now come to dominate this category.

 

Certainly many traditional index funds and indexed asset allocators continue to hold major positions in our companies, but any material trading is typically around known re-balancing events – like the twice annual S&P Global™ indices re-weighting, next, after this Friday’s close.

 

ETF plan sponsors on the other hand have grown increasingly “active” in their trading behaviors. Strategic sector weighting shifts, tax-related selling, and the use of machine-driven trading seemingly more common. Their influence frequently lifts Passive Investment to the Key Behavior in client’s Market Structure reports.

 

The Market has traded with some volatility recently in anticipation of monthly option expirations – not at all unusual; our calendar of such events should be a key input in your Investor Relations planning efforts and is available here – call us to learn how to avoid calendar missteps.

 

Today begins the cycle of monthly option expirations. First the widely followed CBOE Volatility Index (VIX) index. Thursday, AM-settled options expire, mostly index products. Friday brings the main events. March single stock options, single stock futures, stock index options and stock index futures all expire Friday – a so called, “quadruple witching” day. This happens just once a quarter.

 

A wide gamut of Market participants including – model-driven ETF sponsors, Hedge Funds, derivative traders, etc., with expiring options or futures positions must decide how to redeploy funds this week.

 

Little to do with fundamental business performance or valuations, the increased volume and volatility of these routine Market events queue exaggerated machine trading and can meaningfully impact the trading and response to your Investor Relations outreach and messaging. Good news often gets lost. The impact of less good news – often amplified. Its important to know what’s making the difference. Ask us how.

 

PD Grueber

Infected Stocks

Coronaviruses are common throughout the world. So says the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The market didn’t treat news of spreading cases in China and the first in the USA (from a Chinese visitor) that way though. Airline and gaming stocks convulsed yesterday.

There’s as ever a lesson for investor-relations practitioners and investors about how the stock market works now. News compounds conditions but is infrequently causal. Investors, there are opportunities in divergences. IR pros, you need to know what’s real and what’s ripple-effect, because moves in stocks may not reflect rational sentiment.

Airline and leisure stocks demonstrate it. Active Investment pushed airlines up 2.4% last week, industry data we track (with proprietary analytics) show.

But.

Shorting rose, and demand for derivatives used to protect or leverage airline investments fell 7% into last week’s options-expirations (know the calendar, folks). That’s a signal that with new options trading yesterday, counterparties would shed inventory in those stocks because demand for options was down.

Both facts – Active buying last week, weak demand for leverage – run counter to the narrative of investor-fear. The data say these stocks would have been down anyway and news is simply compounding what preceded it.

No doubt some investors knee-jerked to headlines saying investors were selling, and sold. But it’s not the cause. It’s effect.

We can’t isolate gaming in GICS data but leisure stocks shared behavioral characteristics with airlines. Investment was up last week, led by Passive money rather than Active funds (Active rose 2% too). But Risk Management, the use of leverage, declined 3%. And the pattern of demand changed.

What if the real cause for declines in these industries is the rising cost of leverage?

I’ll make my last plug for the book The Man Who Solved the Market. Near the end, one of Jim Simons’s early collaborators at Renaissance Technologies observes, “I don’t deny that earnings reports and other business news surely move markets. The problem is that so many investors focus so much on these types of news that nearly all of the results cluster very near the average.”

He added that he believed the narratives that most investors latch onto to explain price-moves were quaint, even dangerous, because they breed misplaced confidence that an investment can be adequately understood and its future divined.

I’ll give you two more examples of the hubris of using headlines to understand stocks. The S&P 500, like airline and leisure stocks, experienced a 2% decline in demand for derivatives into expirations last week. Patterns changed. Ten of eleven sectors had net selling Friday even as broad measures finished up.

If the market is down 2% this week – and I’m not saying it will fall – what’ll be blamed? Impeachment? Gloomy views from Davos? The coronavirus?

One more: Utilities. These staid stocks zoomed 4% last week, leading all sectors. They were the sole group to show five straight days of buying. We were told the market galloped on growth prospects from two big trade agreements.

So, people bought Utilities for growth?

No, not the reason. Wrapped around the growth headlines was a chorus of voices about how the market keeps going up for no apparent reason. Caution pushes investors to look for things with low volatility.

Utilities move about 1.4% daily between intraday high and low average prices. Tech stocks comprising about 24% of the S&P 500 are 2.6% volatile – 86% more!

Communication Services, the sector for Alphabet, Facebook, Twitter and Netflix, is 2.8% volatile every day, exactly 100% more volatile than Utilities.

The Healthcare sector, stuffed with biotechnology names, is 4.8% volatile, a staggering 243% greater than Utilities.

These data say low-volatility strategies from quantitative techniques, to portfolio-weightings, to Exchange-Traded Funds are disproportionately – and simultaneously – reliant on Utilities. If volatility spikes, damage will thus magnify.

IR people, you’ve got to get a handle on behaviors behind price and volume (we can show you yours!). Headlines are quaint, even dangerous, said the folks at Renaissance Technologies, who earned 39% after-fee returns every year for more than three decades.

Investors, you must, too (try our Market Structure EDGE platform). None of us will diagnose market maladies by reading headlines. The signs of pathology will be deeper and earlier. In the data.

Stocks and the Fiscal Cliff

CNBC has a Fiscal Cliff countdown clock.

You can’t click a TV remote or a web page without somebody declaring that Congress’s inability to compromise on tax rates and spending cuts before December 31 will incinerate equities.

It’s predicated on sound logic. Higher taxes on investment behavior are likely to impact that behavior negatively. Motivation.

We here in Denver before we found the Holy Grail – Peyton Manning – hailed Tim Tebow, who famously sent a one-word tweet after Eli Manning’s Giants topped the Patriots in last year’s Super Bowl: Motivation.

If what one expects will happen isn’t aligned with motivation, then what one expects is unlikely to occur. That’s true in police work, business, life-goals – nearly everything. Including the stock market.

Suppose I expect that because you are a football fan you’re likely to be at Hanson’s Pub near 6:30 p.m. Mondays in Denver for the weekly NFL game. If “you” means my wife, who likes “Johnny Football” Manziel at her Alma Mater Texas A&M but doesn’t give a hoot about the NFL, my expectation won’t match reality. Monday Night Football does not motivate her.

What motivates the market? Many pundits (not all!) conclude that markets will behave badly unless a deal is in the works. That would be true if money in the markets were all rational. But statistically, Rational Investment – money following fundamentals – is only 15% of daily volume across the major US markets. Technically, we peg it at 14.2% the past 200 days, a bit more in the past five (exactly 15%). (more…)