Tagged: closing auction

The Mock

Does it matter where stock-trades occur, investors and public companies?

It does to the stock exchanges.  The explosion in passive investing has driven trades toward the last price of the day, found in stock-exchanges’ closing auctions.

Why?

Index and Exchange-Traded Funds need to track a benchmark in most cases. The bane of passive investing is skewing from the mean, called a tracking-error. The last price of the day is the reference price, the official one.  Money pegging a benchmark wants it.

It’s been profitable business for the big exchanges because they charge the same price to buy or sell into the close. Often at other times there’s a fee to buy but a credit to sell (they say “adding and removing” but don’t get lost in the jargon).

Orders to buy or sell may be “market-on-close,” (we’ll call it “the mock”) meaning at the best bid to buy or offer to sell as determined by matching up supply and demand, or “limit-on-close,” orders buying or selling at a specific price or better to end the day.

If you’re nodding off now or looking for the latest news on who might’ve won the Iowa Caucus, stay with me. There’s an important market-structure lesson coming.

Cboe (the erstwhile Chicago Board Options Exchange) operates four stock markets and just received SEC approval to be part of the closing auction, formerly controlled by the NYSE for stocks listed there, and the Nasdaq for stocks listed there.

The auction will occur at Cboe’s BZX market, likely at a set fee per share. It’s important to know that BZX encourages orders to sell, paying $0.30 per hundred shares, or even $0.32 if the shares first came from retail traders.  That means firms like Two Sigma might buy trades for $0.15 from Schwab and sell them at BZX for $0.32.

Why would an exchange pay so much for a trade?  Because it sets the price – and that’s valuable data to sell, worth more than the cost of paying for the trade.

But I digress.

So the Cboe will now use prices from the NYSE and the Nasdaq to match trades market-on-close for reference purposes.  No short trades, no limit orders. Only what the market giveth or taketh away.

Naturally, the NYSE and the Nasdaq opposed the Cboe plan. We wrote about it all the way back in Aug 2017, describing the cash at stake then.  The biggies argued expanding access to the closing auction would fragment liquidity.

Anyone can use order types from all the exchanges to fill trades. What difference does it make where trades occur if the rules from the SEC say the behavior must be uniform?

It’s like those heist movies where the robbers huddle beforehand and say “synchronize watches.” The market is a collection of synchronized watches at the close.

But overlooked amid the market mumbo-jumbo are the effects on trading the rest of the time – and we need to understand, investors and public companies.

Phil Mackintosh, now chief economist at the Nasdaq and always an interesting read, says, “The data show there are a lot of other investors, traders and hedgers who are also using the close because it’s a cheap way to get sizable liquidity with minimal market impact.”

True enough, it’s not all passive. By the way, MSCI indexes rebalance for the quarter today. The issue to us is the way that much of the trading throughout the rest of the day is an effort to change the prices of big measures into the close.

Traders know money chases reference prices.  So they change prices the rest of the day by running stocks up or down, and trading index futures, options, options on futures, or baskets of ETFs, creating divergences to exploit.

This becomes the market’s chief purpose – skewing prices and bringing them back to the mean (the hubris here is a story for next time).  Everyone thinks it’s fundamentals when the behavioral data show how pervasive this short-term pursuit has become.

How to solve it? Disconnect markets. That alone would halve the arbitrage opportunity.

Since that won’t happen, the best defense is a good offense. Know what all the money is doing, all the time (we can help), and you won’t be fooled. Or mocked.

The Auction

Boo!

What a Halloween week. To our many friends, clients and colleagues on the Atlantic seaboard assailed by Hurricane Sandy, we in Denver are rushing sunshine your direction.

Exchanges are hoping for sunshine too as trading resumes. It hinges on opening auctions. That gives us the creepy-crawlies, as though black cats were crisscrossing ahead as we ducked from ladder to ladder to avoid the falling sky.

Why? BATS Exchange saw its IPO torpedoed when the opening auction went awry. Flaws in the Facebook opening auction at the Nasdaq delayed quotes, and the fiasco lingers in recriminations and lawsuits. Knight Capital Group had bad software derail an algorithm hitting opening auctions.

We should note “closing auctions” too, since trading days begin and end with them. Some, like the Nasdaq, call them the opening and closing “cross” – not as though it’s catechism but because of what happens.

As Sandy stomped through Long Island Sound, the big equity exchanges including NYSE, Nasdaq, Direct Edge and BATS, were plotting how to get a good auction going today to restart markets dormant since Friday.

Now, stay with me. We have one aim: To explain why the Halloween auction is vital – and risky – and why auctions are both linchpins to price-discovery and the market’s Achilles Heel. (more…)

Did You Carry the One?

Suppose the chairperson of the national central bank strode from the organization’s Gothic façade on Maiden Lane and said, “Job growth is likely temporary, and folks are going to have to borrow money and buy stuff just to keep the economy running like a used Yugo.”

How would you expect stocks to react? Exactly. They would soar, as they did Monday March 26.

Speaking of bizarro-world, if you missed the BATS Exchange IPO drama Friday, you must have been on a monastic sojourn in the hinterlands. It showed several things. You can run a great business. You can raise money from investors. You can be quality folks who are nice to boot, as our friends at BATS are.

But if somebody forgets to carry the one in that mathematical equation for the opening auction, the incredible shrinkage occurring in the dollar can immediately translate to your shares, speeded up to nanoseconds.

Humor aside, we were asked by various members of the media (and quoted by the WSJ Saturday for the lead article on page one) and many clients about BATS. Should you worry about trading markets because the IPO for a technology-driven stock exchange failed?

Not for that reason. BATS will be fine. They will be back, and soon. Mark it.

But something should concern you. We’ll come to it in a moment. (more…)