Tagged: DXY

August Currents

“Treasury yields rise as Turkey worries fade,” declaimed a headline at Dow Jones Marketwatch yesterday.

This one day after the New York Times bleated, “Plunge in Lira, Turkey’s Currency, Fuels Fears of Financial Contagion.”

Why are stocks, ostensibly propelled by fundamentals (earnings and revenue growth this reporting cycle were strong), instead wracked by the machinations of a minor monetary unit for an economy that ranks 19th, behind the Netherlands and Indonesia and just ahead of Saudi Arabia?

They’re not.  It’s the dollar. Every investor and investor-relations professional should understand currency valuation, just as we all must grasp how the market works and what the money is doing (we wrote about that last week).

(To Turkey, for a prescient economic perspective, read this piece by Jim Rickards – whose gold views fuel skepticism but who always writes thoughtfully.)

The dollar is the world’s reserve currency. Simplistically, instead of holding gold, countries own dollars, and sell or buy them to adjust the value of their own currencies.

The USA by contrast only mints the buck and the Federal Reserve uses interest rates to regulate its value. In effect, higher interest rates mean a stronger dollar, lower interest rates a weaker buck, all other things being equal. (In fact, some economics ingenue somewhere should write a thesis establishing that the definition of inflation is low rates.)

Anyway, stocks are risk assets that reflect fluctuations in currencies every bit as much as they are supposed to offer a barometer of economic activity.

Take Turkish stocks.  The lira has been falling in value for years while Istanbul’s stocks shined, especially last year. Yet the economy has slipped a couple notches in global rankings.

The US economy is booming, and yet markets have stalled in 2018. The dollar is at a 52-wk high, spiking lately. In 2017, the dollar devalued 12% and stocks soared. There’s consistent inverse correlation between broad US equity measures and the dollar’s value.

We’ve described Teeter Totter Monetary Theory before. The nexus of the Teeter of supply meeting the Totter of demand should determine prices.

But under the modern floating-rate currency construct, central bankers move the fulcrum, which is money, to balance out the teeter totter. To encourage investment (supply) increase the value of the dollar (also lifting productivity, something few in orthodox economics recognize). To fuel consumption, depress interest rates so people borrow more and save less.

The problem is these policies over time erode the veracity of stock prices – and the value of everything from debt to art to homes to money.

Yes, many economists will disagree. But the evidence is stark, as is the math. Goods are the numerator, dollars, the denominator. If the dollar depreciates, things like stocks and beer cost more. Increase its value – more purchasing power – and prices fall.

August has had a recent history of currency volatility.  August 2010 and August 2011 were rocked by the euro, which nearly failed. August 2015 brought a sudden Chinese currency devaluation and on the 24th a thousand Exchange Traded Funds were volatility halted. Stocks didn’t recover until October.

As August 2018 fades like summer grass, there are currents.  The dollar is strong and market-structure Sentiment is sluggish, positive now but without a vital mean-reversion. Options expire the 16th-17th and 22nd, a split cycle for derivatives. (NOTE: Speaking of August, don’t miss NIRI SWRC next week — I’ll be there.)

If stocks top into expirations with a rising dollar, we could have a hard mean-reversion to finish the summer. It’s no prediction, just a higher probability. And it’s not fundamental – yet another reminder that the stock market cannot be seen merely as an economic gauge.

 

Currency Volatility

 We interrupt the white-hot arc of the stock market for this public-service announcement: Watch the dollar.

While any number of factors might be selected as reason for the DJIA’s 360-point drop yesterday, one macro factor correlates well: The relative buying power of the US dollar, the world’s reserve currency.

Give me two minutes, and I’ll show you.

Sure, one can say the market is due for a pullback. But randomly? Donald Trump’s first inaugural address is an easy target. Do we call investors schizophrenic if the market regains yesterday’s losses today or tomorrow?

How the US dollar fares versus other global currencies remains a barometer for US stocks. It’s been especially true since 2008 because the Financial Crisis marked a stark turn for central banks toward coordinated global policy.

But all the way back to 1971 when the United States left the gold standard for the 20th century’s version of a cryptocurrency experiment, a floating-rate dollar, shocks to equities trace to gyrations in the currency (the economy’s risk assets like stocks and bonds have replaced gold as the backing commodity but that’s another story).

Black Monday, the October 19, 1987 global stock crash that hacked 508 points or 23% of blue-chip value off the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) followed a stretch of currency volatility (and interest-rate volatility as the two are intertwined).

For perspective, the DJIA lost a greater number of points just now, Jan 29-30 (533), than it did Oct 19, 1987 (508). Heights today are so lofty that past ravines are wrinkles.

The collapse of the Internet Bubble in 2000 came after a sharp acceleration for the dollar on rate hikes by Fed chair Alan Greenspan to slow what he famously called “irrational exuberance.” He recognized the stock market reflected inflation, which as Milton Friedman said, is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon.

Inflation is more money than an economy can readily deploy, not rising prices, which is a consequence. Stuffing money into economies is like squeezing a balloon. You don’t know where the air pockets will form.  Prices rise, but not always how or where central bankers suppose.

On May 6, 2010, market seams split fleetingly in the Flash Crash, the DJIA first plunging down and then bucking back up about a thousand points.  Before it, volatility was rattling the euro/dollar trade, a product of 2009’s massive “quantitative easing” by the Federal Reserve as the US central bank gave the global money balloon a giant squeeze and the dollar went into a steep dive.

In latter August 2015 the DJIA lost more than 6% over a series of days following a sudden currency-devaluation in China that tripped the delicate global balance.  And remember the Fed’s first post-crisis rate hike – a buck-booster – in Dec 2015? Near catastrophe for stocks (most for energies as oil plunged when the dollar rose) in January 2016.

We come to yesterday. What came before it? Last week the dollar plummeted about 3% as traders interpreted comments by US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to mean he wanted a weaker dollar.

Sure, there’s a sort of Clockmaker God quality to the idea that if we can pan back in the mind’s eye, the financial markets are all perched atop a giant dollar bill that occasionally flutters and spills something into the abyss.

On the other hand, it could be fixed. The dollar, that is. If the dollar wasn’t always fluctuating, we could better concentrate on, say, saving more, or investing capital without worrying about the corrosive effects on returns of a depreciating currency.

So, Jay Powell.  You’ll be steering the Fed after Janet Yellen bids us adieu this week. Imagine how much easier everything would be if the dollar wasn’t one of the things gyrating like stock-prices.

The Clash

On Friday Feb 10, behavioral-change in the stock market rocked the Richter.    

Stocks themselves seem rather to be rocking the Casbah, Clash-style (obligatory Grammy Awards Week musical reference, and showing my age I reached back to 1982).  Plus it’s that time again: Options expire today through Friday.

Naturally, Janet Yellen picked this week to tell the market – I say “tell” loosely since her utterances are so inscrutable that we’re left to construe and guess – a rate-hike is coming.

I find it troubling that the regulator of the world’s most important banking system appears to be ignorant of how markets work. Why hint at momentous monetary matters two days before volatility bets lapse?  Then again, maybe it’s purposeful.    

And far easier than ruminating on Chair Yellen’s comments for signals is checking the Fed’s balance sheet. Want to know if the Fed will raise rates?  Look for big moves in either Reverse Repurchases or Excess Bank Reserves.

Let me interrupt here:  Investor-relations folks and investors, I return to the Fed theme because it remains the linchpin of the market. We’ll make it an intriguing visit!

On the Fed’s balance sheet, sure enough – big changes.  Excess Reserves have risen from about $1.8 trillion in January to $2.2 trillion last week (huge numbers, yes. For the 20 years before the financial crisis, excess reserves averaged about $10 billion). 

That’s a $400 billion push, almost as big as the $500 billion the Fed heaved at the market last January and February when it was collapsing under the weight of the mighty buck following the Fed’s first rate-hike in ten years.

You can hardly remember, right?  Back then, the top price-setter (followed by Fast Trading) was Asset Allocation – selling by indexes and ETFs jammed up at the exits.

It stopped because the buck didn’t. The dollar fell. When the dollar weakens, stocks generally rise because they are denominated, like oil, in dollars. Smaller dollar, bigger price.

And vice versa. The dollar strengthened ahead of the 1987 stock market crash.  Ditto the Internet Bubble. In May 2010, the dollar rose right ahead of the famed Flash Crash. Last January’s swoon? The dollar surged in November and December with the rate-hike.

From Mar 2009 until Aug 2014 the dollar was weak as the Fed trampled it, and stocks, commodities, bonds, housing and so on all rose.  Then abruptly in latter 2014 the Fed stopped beefing up dollar-supplies. Stocks statistically flatlined till Nov 9 last year.  The Dow was 18,000 in Dec 2014 and 17,888 Nov 4, 2016.

Since the Fed is no longer creating new dollars rapidly by buying debt, it instead moves money into or out of the counted supply.  Excess reserves increase the counted supply of money, which decreases dollar-value.  And yup, from early January to last week, the dollar dropped 4% (using the DXY, the dollar-futures contract from The ICE).

Why does that signal a rate-hike? Because increasing interest rates is akin to reducing the supply of money.  The Fed hopes the yin of bigger reserves will mesh with the yang of higher rates and stop the buck in the middle.

But the buck is back up 2% already. We come to the Richter move I mentioned to start.  We track the four big reasons people buy and sell stocks. From Nov 9 to Feb 9 as stocks soared, the leading price-setter was Active Investment. Rational people are bullish on American economic prospects.

But the Number Two price-setter is Risk Management – portfolio leverage with derivatives. And it’s nearly as big as Active Investment.  Investors are buying the present and betting on the future, which means both present and future back current stock-prices.

The problem arises if the future isn’t what it used to be, to paraphrase Yogi Berra.  And one axiom of Market Structure is that behavioral volatility precedes price volatility.  Much like clouds gather before a storm.

On Feb 10 clouds formed. Risk Management marketwide jumped almost 18%. It’s unusual to see a double-digit move in any behavior, and this is among the biggest one-day moves we’ve ever seen for Risk Management. Is money questioning the future?

It came right ahead of the Grammys. And more importantly, before Options Week and Janet Yellen.  Were we monitoring the Ring of Fire for seismic events, we’d be predicting a temblor.

Of course, in the same way that seismic activity doesn’t mean The Big One is coming, it might be nothing.  But stocks are near a statistical top in our 10-point Behavioral Sentiment Index again and the buck is rising toward a March rate-increase. Sooner or later, the present and the future will clash. 

Life will go on.  And we’ll be measuring the data. 

The Flood

The word of the week was “flood.”

Here in Colorado, Denver had a coup d’état by weather patterns from Portland, Oregon for a week but our streets never ran in torrents. Where the Rocky Mountain watershed empties to the flood plain from the Mesozoic Era, occupied by present-day Boulder, Loveland and Greeley and small towns like Evans and Lyons hugging the banks of normally docile tributaries, the week past reshaped history and landscape. It will take months to recover.

In the markets too there was and remains a flood that surfaces with rising intensity from its subterranean aquifers to toss debris into market machinery. It’s the spreading vastness of complex market data.

SIDEBAR: If you’re in St. Louis Friday, join us at the NIRI luncheon Sept 20 for a rollicking session on the equity market – how it works and why it fails at times.

Data is the fuel powering market activity. Globally, trading in multiple asset classes turns on computerized models that depend on uninterrupted streams of reliable data. This gargantuan global data cross-pollination affects trading in your shares. After all, there are two million global indexes, as the WSJ’s Jason Zweig noted in a poignant view last weekend on modern equities. (more…)

Stocks and the Fiscal Cliff

CNBC has a Fiscal Cliff countdown clock.

You can’t click a TV remote or a web page without somebody declaring that Congress’s inability to compromise on tax rates and spending cuts before December 31 will incinerate equities.

It’s predicated on sound logic. Higher taxes on investment behavior are likely to impact that behavior negatively. Motivation.

We here in Denver before we found the Holy Grail – Peyton Manning – hailed Tim Tebow, who famously sent a one-word tweet after Eli Manning’s Giants topped the Patriots in last year’s Super Bowl: Motivation.

If what one expects will happen isn’t aligned with motivation, then what one expects is unlikely to occur. That’s true in police work, business, life-goals – nearly everything. Including the stock market.

Suppose I expect that because you are a football fan you’re likely to be at Hanson’s Pub near 6:30 p.m. Mondays in Denver for the weekly NFL game. If “you” means my wife, who likes “Johnny Football” Manziel at her Alma Mater Texas A&M but doesn’t give a hoot about the NFL, my expectation won’t match reality. Monday Night Football does not motivate her.

What motivates the market? Many pundits (not all!) conclude that markets will behave badly unless a deal is in the works. That would be true if money in the markets were all rational. But statistically, Rational Investment – money following fundamentals – is only 15% of daily volume across the major US markets. Technically, we peg it at 14.2% the past 200 days, a bit more in the past five (exactly 15%). (more…)

The Vessel

Will markets collapse?

We’re a day late this week, steering clear of election bipolarity marked by the vicissitudes of demography and the barest palimpsest of republicanism, a diaphanous echo of Madison and Jefferson and Hamilton, names people now think of as inner city high schools.

Back to markets. We’ve seen a curious change. A year ago, the top refrain from clients was: “What is our Rational Price?” For those not in the know, we calculate where active investors compete against market chaos to buy shares.

That’s not the top metric now. It’s this: “What’s your take on macro factors?” Management appears to have traded its focus on caring for trees for fearing the forest – so to speak. If so, the clever IRO will equip herself with good data.

We’ve been writing since early October about the gap between stocks and the US dollar. The dollar denominates the value of your shares. As the currency fluctuates in value, so do your shares, because they are inversely proportional.

In past decades since leaving the gold standard in 1971, those fluctuations have generally proven secondary to the intrinsic value of your businesses. But that changed in 2008. Currency variance replaced fundamentals as principal price-setter as unprecedented effort was undertaken by governments and central banks globally to refloat currencies.

Imagine currencies as the Costa Concordia, the doomed luxury liner that foundered fatally off the Tuscan coast. Suppose global forces were marshaled to place around it Leviathan generators blowing air through the ships foundered compartments at velocity sufficient to expectorate the sea and set the ship aright.

Thus steadied on air, the ship is readied for sail again, surrounded by a flotilla of mighty blowers filling the below-decks with air and keeping the sea back from fissures in the ravaged hull by sheer force. Passengers are loaded aboard for good times and relaxation and led to believe that all is again as it was. As seaworthy as ever.

That’s where we are. We are coming off the peak now of our fourth stocks-to-dollars inflationary cycle since 2008. In each case, markets have retreated at least 10%. The cycles are shortening. And despite retreat we right now retain the widest gap between the two since July 2008, right before the Financial Crisis.

Why does the pattern keep repeating? Because central banks keep juicing the blowers as the vessel wilts and founders. That’s what you saw yesterday after the election. The Euro crisis, having gone to the green room for a smoke is back center stage as it a year ago. Money – air – leaves variable securities for the dollar. As air leaves, stocks falter.

We don’t say these things to be discouraging. It is what it is. The wise and prudent IRO develops an understanding of market behavior – so the wise and prudent IRO will be cool in the IR chair and valuable to management and able to retain sanity and job security in markets depending on giant turbines.

If you’re relying on the same information you did in the past, you’re ill-prepared. We are in a different world now.

Relativity and Dollars

How do you prove relativity?

When Einstein proffered the preposterous suggestion that all motion is relative including time, people clearly had not yet seen Usain Bolt. Or what happens to stocks after options-expirations when the spread between the dollar and equity indexes is at a relative post-crisis zenith.

Let me rephrase that.

As you know if you get analytics from us, we warned more than a week ago that a reset loomed in equities. Forget the pillars on which we lean – Behavior and Sentiment. Yes, Sentiment was vastly neutral. Behavior showed weak investment and declining speculation –signs of dying demand – all the way back in mid-August.

Let’s talk about the dollar – as I’m wont to do.

There is a prevailing sense in markets that stocks are down because earnings are bad. No doubt that contributes. But it’s like saying your car stopped moving because the engine died, when a glance earlier at the fuel gauge on empty would have offered a transcendent and predictive indicator.

Stocks are down because money long ago looked a data abounding around us. From Europe clinging together through printed Euros, to steadily falling GDP indicators in the US and China, to the workforce-participation line in US employment data nose-down like it is when economies are contracting not recovering, there were signs, much the way a piercing shriek follows when you accidentally press the panic button on your car’s key fob, that stuff didn’t look great.

We know institutional money didn’t wake up yesterday, rub its eyes, and go, “Shazzam! Earnings are going to be bad!” (more…)

Macro IR

We’re a day late this week in deference to an important birthday yesterday. After 236 years, there are lines and age spots but the countenance still juts, resolute.

Do people send you group emails sometimes with those images where if you stare at them, suddenly you see something else? Here are two verbal versions, headlines I saw Tuesday:

“European stocks rallied for a third day as hope mounted that central banks in Europe and the U.S. will act to bolster economic growth.”

“U.S. stocks extended a rally for a third day on Tuesday as sharp gains in oil prices lifted energy shares and traders factored in increased expectations for central bank stimulus.”

Do you see what’s freakishly wrong with these? Stocks rose despite conditions that should depress stocks. Because central banks might offer free money.

Markets have always been barometers of economic health. Now they’re moving on money alone, disaffected from the factors that once could be relied upon like the piers and stanchions of a venerable republic.

IR folks, think about this. It cuts to the quick of the job. We’re heading into earnings season. We’re planning call scripts and press releases. We’re thinking about discussion and analysis for quarterly filings.

Yet the markets we use as a mirror for the value of these efforts are doing the exact opposite of what they have always done. They are valuing supplies of currency rather than its commercial use. (more…)

Predictable Outcomes

It was 85 degrees Sunday in Denver when Karen and I rode up local landmark Lookout Mountain on bikes to pay respects at Buffalo Bill’s grave. We woke to snow Tuesday.

Speaking of hot and cold, we told clients to expect a good start Monday for the new quarter, followed by the strong likelihood of a big move Tuesday or Wednesday as imbalances from the quarter exited broker-dealers. The Dow was down more than 100 points intraday Tuesday.

Why are these outcomes predictable?

In answer, ever heard of Mexican film maker Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu and writer Guillermo Arriaga? The duo sadly parted ways after making Babel (Brad Pitt, Cate Blanchett), the third film following Amores Perros (Benicio del Toro) and 21 Grams (Naomi Watts, Sean Penn) with disparate threads woven into haunting themes on life and meaning.

Markets have recently given us disparate threads that can be loomed into predictive thematic raiment. Rumblings continue about the dramatic BATS Exchange IPO debacle March 23. The market-structure bugs at Zero Hedge advanced a theory that a deliberate algorithmic tactic torpedoed the IPO. (more…)

Follow the Cash

Headline at 2:34 p.m. Eastern Time today: “Fed Pledges Low Rates Through 2013.”

How many recognize this as a currency-devaluation? Markets jumped 4% here in the U.S. as the DXY, the dollar index, dropped.

Last Sunday, the European Central Bank pledged to monetize debts of Italy and Spain. Monday, markets plunged globally. That’s a currency-devaluation. The central bank is promising to increase the supply of currency without a corresponding increase in economic output.

Most blamed S&P’s downgrade of US debt. But the dollar strengthened, and Treasurys increased in value. Why would the diminished instruments be more valuable?

Because that’s not what caused markets to tank. (more…)